Sequencing and organization Language In general, the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for language and speech and is called the "dominant" hemisphere. The right hemisphere plays a large part in interpreting visual information and spatial processing. In about one third of people who are left-handed, speech function may be located on the right side of the brain.
Chinese music, the art form of organized vocal and instrumental sounds that developed in China. It is one of the oldest and most highly developed of all known musical systems.
Indeed, any survey evokes the music of a varied, still-active civilization whose archaeological resources go back to bce and whose own extensive written documents refer to countless forms of music not only in connection with folk festivals and religious events but also in the courts of hundreds of emperors and princes in dozens of provinces, dynastiesand periods.
For all the richness of detail in Chinese sources, however, it is only for the last segment of Chinese music history—from the Song dynasty — ce to the present—that there is information about the actual music itself. Yet the historical, cultural, instrumental, and theoretical materials of earlier times are equally informative and fascinating.
This mass of information can be organized into four large chronological units: Formative period Ancient artifacts and writings Chinese writings claim that in bce the emperor Huangdi sent a scholar, Ling Lun, to the western mountain area to cut bamboo pipes that could emit sounds matching the call of the fenghuangan immortal bird whose rare appearance signaled harmony in the reign of a new emperor.
By imitating the sound of the bird, Huangdi made possible the creation of music properly pitched to harmonize his rulership with the universe. Even this symbolic birth of music dates far too late to aid in discovering the melodies and instrumental sounds accompanying the rituals and burials that occurred before the first historically verified dynastythe Shang c.
The sounds of music are evanescent, and before the invention of recordings they disappeared at the end of a performance.
Archaeological digs have uncovered globular clay vessel flutes xuntuned stone chimes qingand bronze bells zhongand the word gufor drum, is found incised on Shang oracle bones turtle shells and ox bones used by rulers for ritual divination and sacrifice to obtain the grace of their ancestors.
The earliest surviving written records are from the next dynasty, the Zhou — bce. There are occasional comments about the singing of peasant groups, which is an item that is rare even in the early historical materials of Europe. Their great variety of topics love, ritual, political satire, etc.
The songs also include references to less-durable musical relics such as flutes, the mouth organ shengand, apparently, two types of zithers the qin and the se. Aesthetic principles and extramusical associations Despite the controversial authenticity and dates of ancient Chinese written sources, a combined study of them produces tantalizing images of courtly parties, military parades, and folk festivals, but it does not provide a single note of music.
Nevertheless, in keeping with the prehistoric traditions of China, the philosophies of sages, such as Confucius Kongfuzi; — bce and Mencius Mengzi; c. The straightest path to this material is found in the legendary quest of Ling Lun for bamboo pipes that replicate the song of the mythical fenghuang.
The charm of such a tale tends to cloud several interesting facts it contains. First, it is noteworthy that the goal of the search was to put music in tune with the universe.
Music is the harmony of heaven and earth while rites are the measurement of heaven and earth. Through harmony all things are made known, through measure all things are properly classified. Music comes from heaven, rites are shaped by earthly designs. Such cosmological ideals may be not merely ancient superstitions but actually cogent insights into the cultural function of music in human societies.
Confucius, as pictured in The Analects written long after his death, had a similar view of music, including a concern for the choice of music and modes proper for the moral well-being of a gentleman. It is an open question as to how much performance practice followed the admonitions and theories of the scholars, but centuries later one finds numerous pictures of the wise man standing before some natural beauties while his servant follows closely behind him carrying his seven-stringed zither qin for proper use in such a proper setting.
Another point to be noted in the legend of the origin of music is that Ling Lun went to the western border area of China to find the correct bamboo. Indeed, cultures from Central and West Asia or tribal China greatly influenced the growth and change of music in imperial China.
Finally, it is significant that, although the emperor in the myth was primarily concerned with locating pipes that would bring his reign into harmony with the universe, the goal was also the creation of precise, standard pitches.
Tonal system and its theoretical rationalization Harmonic pitches produced by the division of strings were known in China. The first pipe produces a basic pitch called yellow bell huangzhong. The choice of the primary pitch in China had extramusical as well as practical applications, for the length of the yellow bell pipe became the standard measure like a metreand the number of grains of rice that would fill it were used for a weight measure.
Thus, the pipe itself was often the property not of the imperial music department but of the office of weights and measurements.
This new pitch could be produced an octave lower by constructing a separate pipe two-thirds the size of the first one. If one then continued to construct pipes alternately four-thirds and two-thirds the length of the previous ones, an entire system of 12 notes could be generated, which is, with the exception of the means of creation, acoustically and proportionately in the same relation as is found in the Greek Pythagorean system, one of the classic tuning systems that was used extensively in the West during the Middle Ages.This page is about David and Chandra Courtney.
It is also about their classes on Indian classical music and products relating to them (CD's, etc.). The oldest recording on the set dates to about , making it the oldest known banjo recording in private hands.
Asbury played in the old minstrel “stroke” banjo style that virtually disappeared from the vernacular and has only in recent years been rediscovered and reinvigorated by scholars of American banjo music.
Taiko is a drumming style of Japanese origin. While various taiko drums have been used in Japan for over years, and possibly much longer, the style of taiko best known today has a relatively short history, beginning in the 's.
Musicmap is a first-phase experiment to achieve near perfect overview of all popular music genres. This process is never-ending, always incomplete, and requires further input from the international community.
ARAB CIVILIZATION. Introduction to the Arab World. The Arab homeland stretches some 5, miles— nearly twice the distance between New York and San Francisco—from the Atlantic coast of northern Africa in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Central Africa in the south.
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