They were both founded in the first half of the 17th century and they both practiced some form of self-governance. They had very different climates, however, which meant that the Massachusetts economy was driven by things like shipping and shipbuilding while Virginia's warmer temperatures allowed for an agriculture-based economy.
I'd like to thank these sponsors for supporting this website. Just click on their ads to go to their websites. Powdered sugar dusting — sweet and safe, but does it really work?
Part 3 By Randy Oliver Update In my own operation, we now manage varroa with splitting, drone trapping once a season, and the use of formic acid, thymol, and oxalic acid, plus selection of queens from colonies that exhibit the least buildup of mites.
Scientific inquiry can be exciting yet exasperating, satisfying yet frustrating! On these pages I share my own voyage of discovery, and enjoy the liberty of avoiding scientific formality. If one were to only read published papers, one might think that every experiment worked the first try, successfully answered a question, or made some meaningful discovery.
In reality, however, research frequently does not go as planned, and the results may not be at all what you expected or hoped for.
The best you can then do is to chalk it up to more experience under your belt, and to see if you can be clever enough to extract any useful information from the data.
In my previous two articles I reported on a field trial of powdered sugar dusting as a mite control method, then on another experiment to determine the rate of mite drop after dusting, and finally at the correlations between the natural mite fall, the infestation level as determined by an alcohol wash of adult bees, and the accelerated mite drop after sugar dusting.
Everything was looking just peachy until I tried to make two figures jibe: So I bit the bullet and ran yet another dusting test! On a warm afternoon this October, we tested sugar dusting on nine, frame doubles, each containing from 9 — 20 frames of bees.
We split each hive open, graded it for number of frames covered with bees, then vacuumed an approximate — bee sample from each hive for an alcohol wash.
We then top dusted each hive, caught the mite drop on a dry board for exactly an hour, and then took yet another sample Fig. Vacuuming up a bee sample for an alcohol wash to determine the level of mite infestation.
Samples were taken from the top bars of the brood nest. Back home we washed the mites from the bees Fig. From these figures we hoped to confirm the actual efficacy of sugar dusting by comparing the pre-dusting infestation level to the post-dusting level once again hoping that bee science could be that simple.
Also, by multiplying the initial infestation level by the number of frames of bees, and then by the factor of a conservative bees per frame, we could extrapolate the total colony phoretic mite population, and compare it to the 1-hour dusting drop.
The results are shown in Table 1. My son and partner, Ian, washing mites from bees in an alcohol bath. Data from dusting 9 colonies, with before and after alcohol wash mite counts, and an estimation of the total phoretic mite population for each colony initial infestation x number of frames x bees per frame.
The main assumption of this test is that an alcohol wash of bees from the brood nest would be a consistent and accurate assessment of the mite infestation level. There was actually little reason to assume this, since Fuchs found that estimating the mite infestation level from a sample of washed bees was rather inaccurate, and could vary by a factor of three up or down!
In addition, the response of a colony to dusting is for the bees to move away from the brood area, which may also have affected our data.
Not surprisingly, we found that a single alcohol wash sample of bees is not necessarily a good indicator of mite infestation level—the infestation percentage came back higher after dusting in four of the nine colonies, despite the fact that mites had been removed from the colony by dusting!
In Figure 3 I plotted the 1-hr dusted mite drop vs.
Plot of 1-hour mite drop vs. There would be proportionally more mites for a framer 5 mitesand of course fewer for a weaker colony. This infestation level would correspond to an ether roll of 3 mites in a bee sample.
Let me now address my original question: Another observation that makes me question this low figure is that some colonies in the hour test dropped over mites doubles and mites singles.
My guess is that the problem was in extrapolating the results of an alcohol wash of a small bee sample from the brood nest to the entire colony population. Clearly, what needs to be done to answer this question definitively is to dust and sacrifice more full-sized colonies. Unfortunately, this is an expensive proposition for a cash-strapped beekeeper depending upon almond pollination for his income, so I hope that someone else steps up to the plate to do it!
The take-home message is that the results of this series of tests lead me to question the reliability of either natural mite fall or the alcohol wash or ether roll as monitors of mite infestation level!Compare and Contrast Massachusetts and Virginia Economics and Politics Both the economics and politics greatly differed between Massachusetts and Virginia between and The differences in the percentage of classes were unbelievably large /5(4).
Jamaican political leader, who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, founder the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL), founder of the Black Star Line, which promoted the return of . Sep 17, · Jamestown Vs.
Massachusetts Bay Colony For this post, you are going to compare and contrast the Jamestown Colony vs. the New England Colony, which is basically the Massachusettes Bay colony. We discussed Jamestown together via PowerPoint.
You had a chance to read about the New England ashio-midori.com: The History Book. Virginia (/ v ər ˈ dʒ ɪ n i ə / ()), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian ashio-midori.comia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents.
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