David Molina Documentos de Trabajo Attitudes toward immigrants: We use a micro-level data set from 31 countries. Results indicate that gender, education, age, labor-market status, and political and religious affiliation are important indicators of the attitude toward immigrants.
Popular examples included Ourselves Among Others: Cross-cultural studies[ edit ] Cross-cultural studies is an adaptation of the term cross-cultural to describe a branch of literary and cultural studies dealing with works or writers associated with more than one culture.
Practitioners of cross-cultural studies often use the term cross-culturalism to describe discourses involving cultural interactivity, or to promote or disparage various forms of cultural interactivity.
Cross-culturalism is nearly synonymous with transculturationa term coined by Cuban writer Fernando Ortiz in the s to describe processes of cultural hybridity in Latin America.
However, there are certain differences of emphasis reflecting the social science derivation of cross-culturalism. The term "cross-culturalism" became prevalent in cultural studies in the late s and s.
Like multiculturalism, cross-culturalism is sometimes construed as ideological, in that it advocates values such as those associated with transculturationtransnationalismcosmopolitanisminterculturalismand globalism.
Nevertheless, cross-culturalism is a fundamentally neutral term, in that favorable portrayal of other cultures or the processes of cultural mixing are not essential to the categorization of a work or writer as cross-cultural.
Cross-culturalism is distinct from multiculturalism. Whereas multiculturalism deals with cultural diversity within a particular nation or social group, cross-culturalism is concerned with exchange beyond the boundaries of the nation or cultural group.
Cross-culturalism in literary and cultural studies is a useful rubric for works, writers and artists that do not fit within a single cultural tradition.
To the extent that cultures are national, the cross-cultural may be considered as overlapping the transnational. The cross-cultural can also be said to incorporate the colonial and the postcolonialsince colonialism is by definition a form of cross-culturalism.
Travel literature also makes up a substantial component of cross-cultural literature. This inclusiveness leads to certain definitional ambiguity albeit one derived from the term culture itself. In practice, "cross-cultural" is usually applied only to situations involving significant cultural divergence.
Thus, the term is not usually applied in cases involving crossing between European nations, or between Europe and the United States. Although disagreement over what constitutes a "significant" cultural divergence creates difficulties of categorization, "cross-cultural" is nevertheless useful in identifying writers, artists, works, etc.
Cross-cultural studies in the social sciences[ edit ] Main article: Cross-cultural studies The term "cross-cultural" emerged in the social sciences in the s, largely as a result of the Cross-Cultural Survey undertaken by George Peter Murdocka Yale anthropologist.
Initially referring to comparative studies based on statistical compilations of cultural data, the term gradually acquired a secondary sense of cultural interactivity. The comparative sense is implied in phrases such as "a cross-cultural perspective," "cross-cultural differences," "a cross-cultural study of Usage of "cross-cultural" was for many decades restricted mainly to the social sciences.
Among the more prominent examples are the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology IACCPestablished in "to further the study of the role of cultural factors in shaping human behavior," and its associated Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychologywhich aims to provide an interdisciplinary discussion of the effects of cultural differences.Volume Key Success Factors of SME Internationalisation: A Cross-Country Perspective Previous Volume.
Volume 34 - Key Success Factors of SME Internationalisation: A Cross-Country Perspective ISBN: eISBN: Chapter 4 Expatriate Perspectives on Knowledge Transfers into Central and Eastern Europe.
• Cross-country differences in trial length appear to be related to both demand and supply factors, though the scarcity of comparable cross-country data warrants caution in the interpretation of the results in this study. More detailed and harmonised statistics on judicial system characteristics and outcomes would help better understand.
Cross-Country Perspective 51 Biela and Hennl (). The following countries are further discussed in this chapter: Austria (federal-centralized state), Germany (federal-.
Exports in a cross-country perspective December 4, Michael Reddell Exports, New Zealand economic performance Across the advanced world, exports have been becoming a .
In this two-part article, the authors examine the beneficial ownership concept through a review of the case law of various countries. In Part 1, the history of the concept was outlined, as well as the domestic treatment in Canada, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. USXC Pine Lake Cross-Country Preview & Historical Perspective (12/13/) This weekend marks the first-ever cross-country snowmobile race run by USXC, the race circuit started by Team Arctic legend Brian Nelson.