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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. French Nietzscheanism Under the Nazi dictatorship —45philosophy in Germany was effectively stifled. Even Heidegger, who was a prolific writer, published very little during these years.
Heidegger joined the Nazi Party in and never renounced his membership. In the years immediately after the war, French philosophy was marked by an enthusiasm for German thinkers, including Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger, and, above all, Nietzsche.
As many commentators have pointed out, it is ironic that in this period Germany enjoyed a hegemony in French intellectual life that it had failed to achieve in the political sphere during the war. Foucault The Hegel renaissance in France was short-lived, however.
Influenced by new developments in the social sciences especially linguistics and anthropology and by the antimetaphysical doctrines of Nietzsche and the later Heideggera new generation of philosophers set out to overthrow Sartrean existential humanism—in their view, the most recent incarnation of subjectivist and metaphysical excess.
Whereas Sartre stressed the dignity of human existence as embodied in the For-itself, Heidegger emphasized the primacy of being—and thus, by implicationthe derivative or subaltern status of human being. As an aspect of the intellectual culture of the Third Republichumanism suffered from its association with the ignominious surrender of France to Hitler and Nazism in Its reputation also was tarnished by the role historically played by Western philosophy in the legitimation of imperialism.
Last, both anthropological and linguistic structuralism exhibited a scientific rigour that made the humanistic disciplines—including philosophy—seem both unrigorous and Discursive essay sports topics in the past.
Animals are divided into: The epistemological implications of this amusing parable seemed clear enough to Foucault: During his structuralist phase, Foucault frequently employed geological metaphors. Eventually, Foucault came to recognize that the structuralism by which he was influenced imposed its own conceptual constraints.
According to the standard account, in his later work he shifted the focus of his analysis from language to power. The integral relationship between psychiatry and mental asylums is one example of such mutual legitimation; the relationship between surveillance or discipline and the organization of prisons is another.
Derrida The other major representative of philosophical post-structuralism is Jacques Derrida —who burst onto the philosophical scene in with three important publications: Unlike Foucault, who was chiefly concerned with the relationship between the humanistic disciplines and power, Derrida concentrated on the history of philosophy.
The Western conception of truth as presence, therefore, is impossible.
Among them were mind versus body or matternature versus culture, intelligible versus sensible, internal versus external, present versus absent, literal versus metaphorical or figurativeand speech versus writing. In each of these oppositions, one member of the pair is assumed to be primary or fundamental, the other secondary or derivative.
To deconstruct an opposition is to show how this assumption of primacy is contradicted or undermined by various aspects of the meaning of the text in which the opposition appears—and particularly by aspects of meaning that depend on figurative or performative uses of language.
But in reality it is a distinction that possesses meaning only within culture itself. Derrida cautioned that a mere reversal of the relation of primacy within the opposition would solve little, since it was the opposition itself that was problematic—the inversion of a metaphysical opposition is still a metaphysical opposition.
Moreover, he insisted, the result of deconstruction is not an end to metaphysics, since there is no alternative set of nonmetaphysical concepts with which it could be replaced.
Yet the details of this process of reinscription were never clarified. Modernity [is] distinguished by the attempt to develop from the identification and appropriation of being by knowledge toward the identification of being and knowledge. Identical and non-identical are identified, [and] the labor of thought wins out over the otherness of things and men.
It is ironic, then, that a continental philosophical tradition that began as an impassioned defense of reason in the face of epistemological skepticism should conclude—as do the French Nietzscheans—by equating reason with domination, insisting that the hegemony of reason be rejected or overthrown.
This notion, however, presupposes that, beyond the purely partisan interests and perspectives of economic classes, there exist genuinely nonpartisan interests and truly general perspectives. Accordingly, Habermas maintained that the concepts of truth and knowledge, properly understood, were more complex and durable than the post-structuralists had allowed.
In the same vein, he insisted that post-structuralist criticisms of the historical role of reason in the perpetuation of injustice and oppression did nothing to show that reason itself must be abandoned.
Rather, he firmly believed in the maxim that the hand that inflicted the wound should cure the disease. In its place, he attempted to develop an understanding of truth rooted in a theory of the conditions of successful communication. Drawing on the tradition of American pragmatism and the speech-act theory of J.
Austin —60 and his American student John Searle bornhe contended that communication aims at reaching agreement and mutual understanding rather than at successfully manipulating the physical world.
If this were not the case, the everyday capacity to coordinate action would be impossible. The ethical notions of right and wrong also admit of rational adjudication, according to Habermas.
This practical ideal provides a means of conferring a kind of truth or validity on the ethical principles to which it may be applied. And whereas Kant emphasized what each person can will without contradiction to be a general law, Habermas stressed what all people can will in agreement to be a universal norm.
In later work, such as Between Facts and Norms:Hopefully, as the framework is now maturing, more such papers will appear. Extent of this site's coverage of the Threshold Concept Framework This bibliography initially reflected the interests of the compiler but, over a decade, has been massively extended to cover most disciplines and topics in which there are published papers on the threshold .
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A kolkhoz (Russian: колхо́з, IPA: (), a contraction of коллективное хозяйство, collective ownership, kollektivnoye khozaystvo) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet ashio-midori.comzes existed along with state farms or ashio-midori.com were the two components of the socialized farm sector that began to emerge in Soviet agriculture after the October Revolution of Tips on writing a descriptive essay about my mother: Since this is a description essay, one is expected to write about the unique attributes that makes the individual or object being described special, which, in this case, is the speaker's mother.
Link to College of Arts and Letters Programs Anthropology. Undergraduate Courses/link to graduate courses Cultural Difference in a Globalized Society (ANT ) 3 credits Writing Across Curriculum (Gordon Rule). Latin American Studies is a gateway to the region and its cultures, politics and history.
The major in Latin American Studies (LAS) can be studied on its own, providing knowledge about a region valuable for employers across different fields and industries.