Evaluating automobile fuel

For many people involved with gasification, that word often invokes a specific image. I contacted Shell to see if they could accommodate a visit for the purpose of writing a story about their facility, and they were indeed able to get me into the plant. I then rode to the plant with Mr. Pattenden, a transplanted Kiwi in the middle of a transfer to Houston.

Evaluating automobile fuel

Mercury Bobcat — [ edit ] — Mercury Bobcat Runabout Lincoln-Mercury dealers marketed a rebadged variant of the Pinto, as the Mercury Bobcat, beginning with model year in Canada produced in all of the same body styles.

It was styled with a unique eggcrate grille and chrome headlamp bezels. The rear featured modified double width taillamps for sedan and Runabout models.

Lesser trimmed versions were offered in subsequent model years. The Bobcat was never offered as a 2-door sedan with an enclosed trunk for the U. All Bobcats were restyled with a domed hood and a taller vertical bar grille styled to look like senior Mercury models.

Throughout all the model years Bobcats were given various appearance options similar to the Pinto's. Except for the wagons, the taillamps were revised. Production of the Bobcat ended in to make way for its replacement, the Mercury Lynx. In total,Bobcats were produced from to The larger inline-4 found in the Chevrolet Vega was an innovative, brand new design using an aluminum alloy block and iron head, but needed more development work as initially released.

Super Stock Magazine found the fit and finish to be "superior" and were impressed with the car overall. InForbes included the Pinto among its fourteen Worst Cars of All Time, saying "When people talk about how bad American small cars created an opportunity for the Japanese to come in and clean house in the s and '80s, they are referring to vehicles like this.

The car tended to erupt in flame in rear-end collisions. The events surrounding the controversy have been described both as a "landmark narrative" [47] and mythical. Evaluating automobile fuel placement of the car's fuel tank was the result of both conservative industry practice of the time as well the uncertain regulatory environment during the development and early sales periods of the car.

Ford was accused of knowing the car had an unsafe tank placement then forgoing design changes based on an internal cost benefit analysis.

MINI 2 Door Hardtop - MINI Cooper, Cooper S, JCW - MINI USA

Two landmark legal cases, Grimshaw vs Ford and State of Indiana vs Ford resulted from fatal accidents involving Pintos. These works also reviewed misunderstandings related to the actual number of fire related deaths related to the fuel system design, "wild and unsupported claims asserted in Pinto Madness and elsewhere", [54] the facts of the related legal cases, Grimshaw vs Ford Motor Company and State of Indiana vs Ford Motor Company, the applicable safety standards at the time of design, and the nature of the NHTSA investigations and subsequent vehicle recalls.

The first federal standard for automotive fuel system safety, passed inknown as Section in the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standardsinitially only considered front impacts. Ford publicly announced it supported the standard.

The fixed-barrier standard was seen by the auto industry as a significant increase in test severity. Design changes were made, but post launch tests showed similar results. Though Ford engineers were not pleased with the car's performance, no reports of the time indicate particular concern.

This placement was not a viable option for the hatchback and station wagon body styles. Cost-benefit analysis was one tool used in the evaluation of safety design decisions accepted by the industry and the NHTSA.

The values assigned to serious burn injuries and loss of life were based on values calculated by NHTSA in In Augusthaving been provided with a copy of the memo by Grimshaw v.

Time magazine said the memo was one of the automotive industry's "most notorious paper trails. The general misunderstanding of the document, as presented by Mother Jones, gave it an operational significance it never had.

These included that Ford knew the Pinto was a "firetrap," and said that Ford did not implement design changes because Ford's cost-benefit analysis document showed that paying out millions in damages in lawsuits was more profitable than the design changes.

The fuel tank design and structural characteristics of the — Mercury Bobcat which render it identical to contemporary Pinto vehicles, also render it subject to like consequences in rear impact collisions.

A large "bullet car" was used instead of a standard moving barrier. Weights were placed in the nose of the car to help it slide under the Pinto and maximize gas tank contact. The vehicle headlights were turned on to provide a possible ignition source.

Petroleum Standards

The fuel tank was completely filled with gasoline rather than partially filled with non-flammable Stoddard fluid as was the normal test procedure. Initially, the NHTSA did not feel there was sufficient evidence to demand a recall due to incidents of fire.

The NHTSA investigation found that 27 deaths were found to have occurred between and mid in rear-impact crashes that resulted in fire. The NHTSA did not indicate if these impacts would have been survivable absent fire or if the impacts were more severe than even a state of the art for fuel system could have withstood.

The administration was pressured by safety advocates Center for Auto Safety as well as the public response. It was also being forced into action due to the ways in which both the courts and executive branch were limiting the ability of the NHTSA to address systematic auto safety issues.

Evaluating automobile fuel

Ford Motor Company and State of Indiana vs. The passenger, Richard Grimshaw, was seriously burned. The jury award was said to be the largest ever in US product liability and personal injury cases.

According to the Los Angeles Times inthe award "signaled to the auto industry that it would be harshly sanctioned for ignoring known defects.The National Tattler (1 July, , page 5). Ed Gray Creates Engine That Consumes No Fuel; Invention Could Change History By by Tom Valentine.

A California inventor has found a way to create limitless electric power without using up fuel — potentially the greatest discovery in . Natural gas is a fossil fuel that is plentiful in the U.S. It produces less air pollutants and GHGs than gasoline. It produces less air pollutants and GHGs than gasoline.

Propane, also called liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is a domestically abundant fossil fuel. ASTM's petroleum standards are instrumental in the evaluation and assessment of the physical, mechanical, rheological, thermal, and chemical properties of crude oils, lubricating grease, automobile and aviation gasoline, hydrocarbons, and other naturally occurring energy resources used for various industrial applications.

On this page you will find links to information about nonroad engines and highway vehicles. The fuel economy of an automobile relates distance traveled by a vehicle and the amount of fuel consumed.

Consumption can be expressed in terms of volume of fuel to travel a distance, or the distance travelled per unit volume of fuel consumed.

Since fuel consumption of vehicles is a significant factor in air pollution, and since importation of motor fuel can be a large part of a nation's. These fuel bottles are designed specifically to accept the threads on MSR fuel pumps and to easily handle the pressurization you need efficiently operate our liquid fuel stoves.

Ed Gray’s R. E. Motor