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Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development funded portions of the research described here. Mention of trade names and commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
All research projects making conclusions and recommendations based on environmentally related measurements and funded by the Environmental Protection Agency are required to participate in the Agency Quality Assurance Program. Work performed by U.
EPA employees or by the U. EPAon-site analytical contractor followed procedures specified in these plans without exception. Information on the plans and documentation of the quality assurance activities and results are available from Cherri Adair or John Wilson.
Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA's research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in the future.
The National Risk Management Research Laboratory NRMRL is the Agency's center for investigation of technologi- cal and management approaches for preventing and reducing risks from pollution that threatens human health and the environment.
The focus of the Laboratory's research program is on methods and their cost-effectiveness for prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites, sediments and ground water; prevention and control of indoor air pollution; and resto- ration of ecosystems.
NRMRL collaborates with both public and private sector partners to foster technologies that reduce the cost of compliance and to anticipate emerging problems. NRMRL's research provides solutions to environmental problems by: Monitored Natural Attenuation is widely used by U. EPA to manage risk associated with hazardous organic contami- nants in soils and ground water.
The Agency prefers attenuation mechanisms that destroy contaminants. As a result, site characterization at hazardous waste sites has focused on biological degradation of organic contaminants because biodegradation was the only mechanism that was widely acknowledged to destroy organic contaminants.
In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that abiotic degradation mechanisms can make a substantial contribution to natural attenuation of a variety of halogenated organic compounds in soil, sediment and ground water.
This report provides a technical basis to evaluate the contribution of abiotic processes to MNA of halogenated organic compounds. The report reviews the current knowledge of the rate of transformation of halogenated organic compounds that is associated with reactive mineral phases in soil and aquifer sediment.
The report also reviews the known trans- formation products. Paul, Minnesota B.
Ternary diagram showing the importance of controlling factors on iron sulfide formation in natural aquifers and biowalls 5 Figure 1. The data series Not freeze dried  and Freeze dried  repeat data from Figure 2. The rate constant is normalized to the concentration of FeS in suspension 26 Figure 3.
Effect of solution pH on the rate constant for degradation of carbon tetrachloride on the surface of magnetite 35 Figure 3. Removal of cis-DCE in aquifer sediment containing magnetite 37 Figure 3.
X-ray diffraction pattern of freshly synthesized carbonate green rust and sulfate green rust less than 24 hours after synthesis scanned as glycerol smears 48 Figure 4. Removal of TCE in the presence of sulfate green rust as a function of reaction time with and without a 0.
Removal of TCE in the presence of sulfate green rust as a function of reaction time, concentration of added CuSO4, and presence or absence of 0.
Removal of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of sulfate green rust as a function of reaction time and pH 53 Figure 4.
Proposed pathways for the reduction of chlorinated ethanes in aqueous suspensions of green rusts and in green rust suspensions spiked with Ag I AgGR or Cu II CuGR ; however, some elements of the pathways shown are not relevant to all experimental systems 54 Figure 4.
Fractionation of stable isotopes of carbon during abiotic degradation of cis-DCE in aquifer sediment containing magnetite 70 Figure 6. Powder X-ray diffraction scans of mixtures of magnetite and quartz 74 Figure 6. Relationship between the mass magnetic susceptibility of a sediment sample and the content of magnetic materials 77 Figure 6.
Paul, MN Figure B. Relationship between monitoring wells in Table B. Paul, Minnesota Figure B. Location of sediment used for microcosms in the plume of contamination at the Thermo-Chem site near Muskegon, Michigan Figure B. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride on reactive iron and sulfur minerals in laboratory experiments xviii Table 1.
Mineralogical data for iron- and sulfur-bearing phases of interest 1 Table 1. Rate Constants and products of abiotic degradation of chlorinated ethylenes by FeS minerals 13 Table 2. Rates and products of abiotic degradation of chlorinated alkanes on FeS minerals 19 Table 2.
Rates and products of abiotic degradation of chlorinated methanes on FeS minerals 23 Table 3.IB Physics Thermodynamics Lab- "The purpose of this lab is to determine the identity of an unknown metal, and to prove whether the laws of thermodynamics 5/5(1).
Lab 12 – Heat Engines and the First Law of Thermodynamics University of Virginia Physics Department PHYS , Fall BACKGROUND N. There are several key observations from these lab-based studies. First, the degradation reactions occur at the mineral surface and not in aqueous solution.
Second, the rate of FeS-mediated reductive dechlorination is a strong function of pH, with the rate increasing with increasing pH. IB Physics Thermodynamics Lab- "The purpose of this lab is to determine the identity of an unknown metal, and to prove whether the laws of thermodynamics hold when determining this identity.".
(, January 26).5/5(1). Analysis of Experimental Uncertainties: Density Measurement Physics Lab II Objective This laboratory exercise allows students to estimate and analyze experimental uncer-tainties. Students will calculate the density of brass and chrome.
Conclusions are drawn primary purpose of this experiments. When taking measurements of a physical quantity. P Thermodynamics Lab 2 Spring 2. Develop an experiment to determine the specific heat of an unknown sample using the formula you derived for number 1 and using the materials listed above.
Use a large amount of metal (on the order of g) when you design your experiment. Section 2 1.