Entropy-the measure of uncertainty in a system. In the case of a two-headed coin, there can be neither any freedom of choice nor any reduction in uncertainty so long as the destination knows exactly what the outcome must be. In other words, the value of a specific bit of information depends on the probability that it will occur.
The Shannon—Weaver model as portrayed in a report from the United States Office of Technology Assessment  The Shannon—Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models.
However, some consider the name to be misleading, asserting that the most significant ideas were developed by Shannon alone. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing what became known as the dominant form of information theory.
The book co-authored with Warren WeaverThe Mathematical Theory of Communication, reprints Shannon's article and Weaver's popularization of it, which is accessible to the non-specialist. Shannon's concepts were also popularized, subject to his own proofreading, in John Robinson Pierce 's Symbols, Signals, and Noise, a popular introduction for non-specialists.
At the same time, it has been subject to much criticism in the social sciences, as it is supposedly "inappropriate to represent social processes"  and "misleading misrepresentation of the nature of human communication", citing its simplicity and inability to consider context.
Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Bell System Technical Journal.
Shannon and Warren Weaver The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press.Reprinted with corrections from The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, pp.
–, –, July, October, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Shannon–Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models." Social Scientists use the term to refer to an integrated model of the concepts of information source, message, transmitter, signal, channel, noise, receiver, information destination, probability of error, encoding, decoding, information rate, channel .
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Transactional model of communication is the exchange of messages between sender and receiver where each take turns to send or receive messages.
Here, both sender and receiver are known as communicators and their role reverses each time in the communication process as both processes of sending and receiving occurs at the same time. The communicators [ ].
David Berlo devised the SMCR model which includes source, message, channel and receiver. This was a linear model of communication. This model is based on simple human communication methods. DirtCar Racing Organization Dirt On Dirt Dirt Late Model Racing News LUCAS OIL Dirt Late Model Racing Series: World of Outlaws Dirt Late Model Racing Series.