The controversy surrounding cloning in the united states

Christian views on cloning The Roman Catholic Churchunder the papacy of Benedict XVIcondemned the practice of human cloning, in the magisterial instruction Dignitas Personaestating that it represents a "grave offense to the dignity of that person as well as to the fundamental equality of all people. The World Council of Churchesrepresenting nearly Christian denominations worldwide, opposed cloning of both human embryos and whole humans in February

The controversy surrounding cloning in the united states

Sc is graduating this year with an Honours degree in Biochemistry. She is looking forward to studying medicine at McGill this year, and hopes to do more research in the future.

For details, please refer to http: Abstract Advances in biotechnology necessitate both an understanding of scientific principles and ethical implications to be clinically applicable in medicine.

In this regard, therapeutic cloning offers significant potential in regenerative medicine by circumventing immunorejection, and in the cure of genetic disorders when used in conjunction with gene therapy.

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Scientific roadblocks impeding advancement in therapeutic cloning are tumorigenicity, epigenetic reprogramming, mitochondrial heteroplasmy, interspecies pathogen transfer, low oocyte availability. Therapeutic cloning is also often tied to ethical considerations concerning the source, destruction and moral status of IVF embryos based on the argument of potential.

Legislative and funding issues are also addressed. Future considerations would include a distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning in legislative formulations. Therapeutic cloning is the transfer of nuclear material isolated from a somatic cell into an enucleated oocyte in the goal of deriving embryonic cell lines with the same genome as the nuclear donor.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT products have histological compatibility with the nuclear donor, which circumvents, in clinical applications, the use of immunosuppressive drugs with heavy side-effects. While the goal of reproductive cloning is the creation of a person, the purpose of therapeutic cloning is to generate and direct the differentiation of patient-specific cell lines isolated from an embryo not intended for transfer in utero.

Therapeutic cloning, through the production of these autologous nuclear-transfer embryonic stem cells ntESCoffers great promises for regenerative and reproductive medicine, and in gene therapy, as a vector for gene-delivery. This review focuses on the recent breakthroughs in research based on therapeutic cloning, their feasibility, and their potential applications in medicine.

The second part of this review discusses current roadblocks of therapeutic cloning, both in science and biomedical ethics, as well as the main alternatives to therapeutic cloning.

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The host oocyte is arrested at metaphase II 2and immobilized through light suction exerted by a pipette tip. A glass needle is used to remove a small piece of the zona pellucida and is reinserted through this puncture to extract the polar body and the oocyte nuclei.

The incorporation of the somatic nuclei into the enucleated oocyte can be done through electrofusion, which is the application of an electric pulse to incorporate a mammalian cell into the oocyte used to produce Dolly.

Alternatively, a somatic nucleus can be injected in the perivitelline space, the fluid-filled region between the zona pellucida and the ooplasm, as was used for Cumulina, the first mouse cloned through SCNT. Mitosis occurs in vitro until the formation of the blastocyst, a fluid-filled hollow ball of cells 40— cells to which is attached, from the inside, the embryoblast or inner cell mass from which ntESC are taken.

Subsequent addition of cell-type specific markers and growth hormones promotes the differentiation of the ntESC into the desired cell-line to be implanted in vivo inside the nuclear donor for therapeutic purposes, in cell replacement therapy for instance.

In vitro, the ESC can proliferate ad infinitum and are totipotent, capable of differentiating into any cell-type of the body, contrary to adult stem cells which are multipotent, namely committed to produce any type of cells pertaining to a particular lineage 3.

Current legal status of therapeutic cloning in relation to reproductive cloning Laws regarding biomedicine are generally formulated in vague terms that do not distinguish reproductive from therapeutic cloning.

The legitimacy of the latter is being questioned by the Prolife movement under the pretext that they were not democratically elected 5.

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Australia is currently reviewing its existing laws 7 to follow the Asian trend in Singapore, China and South Korea, and to legalize the generation of chimeras using human DNA. Since both reproductive and therapeutic cloning require the in vitro generation of a human embryo, prohibiting reproductive cloning is likely to result in severely hindering medically important research based on therapeutic cloning.

A worldwide ban on reproductive human cloning was proposed by France and Germany to the UN in and effective4 since September 4. A breakthrough in reproductive cloning was published a month earlier by Zavos and Illmensee, who injected a skin fibroblast nucleus from an infertile man into an oocyte provided by his wife.

Promises of therapeutic cloning SCNT in the context of therapeutic cloning holds a huge potential for research and clinical applications including the use of SCNT product as a vector for gene delivery, the creation of animal models of human diseases, and cell replacement therapy in regenerative medicine.

Furthermore, SCNT might, in the future, allow in vitro organogenesis and counteract senescence.Publisher of academic books and electronic media publishing for general interest and in a wide variety of fields. In the United States, there are no federal laws specifically regarding human cloning.

There is a prohibition on spending federal money on human embryo research of any kind, and President Bush has interpreted that to extend to human embryonic stem cells, except in the case of embryonic stem cells that were created before Aug.

The controversy surrounding cloning in the united states

9, Updated November Introduction. Genetic engineering, or genetic modification, uses a variety of tools and techniques from biotechnology and bioengineering to modify an organism’s genetic makeup.

Benefits of Cloning - Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through the use of a DNA sample.

After the first cloned sheep dolly was created, many people were keen in knowing more about cloning and its benefit to society. In the United Nations passed a nonbinding Declaration on Human Cloning that calls upon member states “to adopt all measures necessary to prohibit all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life.” This does provide leeway for member countries to pursue therapeutic .

Animal Cloning and Food Safety; Myths about Cloning Responses to the questions provided in this document represent FDA's view in light of the conclusions and recommendations outlined in the Animal.

The controversy surrounding cloning in the united states
Controversies About Cloning - Management and Nutrition - Merck Veterinary Manual